To Marguerite: Continued by Matthew Arnold, Summary & Analysis

To Marguerite: Continued by Matthew Arnold 

by Mohamed Zayed

Yes! in the sea of life enisled,
With echoing straits between us thrown,
Dotting the shoreless watery wild,
We mortal millions live alone.
The islands feel the enclasping flow,
And then their endless bounds they know.

But when the moon their hollows lights,
And they are swept by balms of spring,
And in their glens, on starry nights,
The nightingales divinely sing;
And lovely notes, from shore to shore,
Across the sounds and channels pour—

Lexical Cohesion: A Detailed Approach

Lexical Cohesion: A  Detailed Approach 
Compiled by Mohamed Zayed

Halliday and Hasan are two of the prominent linguists who wrote extensively on cohesion within their framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL). Their approach to cohesion in DA focused on the non-syntactic relations that would make a certain text or a piece of discourse stand together as one unit. These relations were termed reference, ellipsis, substitution, conjunction as well as lexical cohesion. These elements—according to Halliday and Hasan—enable a text or a discourse to develop from a proposition or a clause to another. That is to say, one of the primary interests of the analytical tool of lexical cohesion is to study and investigate the significance of the multiple ties between words in a given discourse.

‘To Autumn’ by John Keats, Summary & Analysis

‘To Autumn’ by John Keats, Summary & Analysis
by Mohamed Zayed, a Linguist

Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,
Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;
Conspiring with him how to load and bless
With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves
To bend with apples the moss’d cottage-trees,
And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core;
To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells
With a sweet kernel; to set budding more,
And still more, later flowers for the bees,
Until they think warm days will never cease,
For Summer has o’er-brimm’d their clammy

Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store?
Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find
Thee sitting careless on a granary floor,
Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind;
Or on a half-reap’d furrow sound asleep,
Drows’d with the fume of poppies, while thy
Spares the next swath and all its twined flowers:
And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep
Steady thy laden head across a brook;
Or by a cyder-press, with patient look,
Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours.

Speech Act Theory: A Detailed Account

Speech Act Theory: A Detailed Account
by Mohamed Zayed
 MA Researcher in English Linguistics

1.     Definition & Origin
Speech act is a term which was developed by the language philosopher J. L. Austin. It is widely used in linguistics especially the branch of pragmatics or language in use, namely discourse analysis. Speech Act Theory is a theory which aims at analyzing the role of utterances in relation to both the behavior of the speaker as well as the hearer in a given interpersonal communication or a piece of discourse. Speech act theory states that, in our speech or communicational process, we—as speakers—are not merely expressing our ideas or giving out information. Rather, we do something with language. For example, the utterance Please, be seated serves the purpose of a  polite request or command to be seated. Also, when a priest states, to newly-weds, I pronounce you man and wife he is not merely expressing ideas. Rather, the priest is doing the actions of “uniting” two souls eternally with the holy strings of marriage.

‘Remember’ by Christina Rossetti, Full Summary & Analysis

‘Remember’ by Christina Rossetti, Full Summary & Analysis
By Mohamed Zayed, a Linguist

Remember me when I am gone away,
Gone far away into the silent land;
When you can no more hold me by the hand,
Nor I half turn to go yet turning stay.
Remember me when no more day by day
You tell me of our future that you planned:
Only remember me; you understand
It will be late to counsel then or pray.
Yet if you should forget me for a while
And afterwards remember, do not grieve:
For if the darkness and corruption leave
A vestige of the thoughts that once I had,
Better by far you should forget and smile
Than that you should remember and be sad.

Punctuation Rules: Your Essential Guide to Punctuation Marks

Punctuation Rules: Your Essential Guide to Punctuation Marks

By Mohamed Zayed
MA Researcher in English Linguistics 

0.0 Introduction
Using correct punctuation is important because punctuation conveys meaning just as words do. Consider these two sentences:
Eat children.
Eat, children.
Both sentences are commands, but the first sentence would be correct only in a society of cannibals! Learn and practice the rules of punctuation until you are confident about using them correctly.

The Solitary Reaper by William Wordsworth, Full Summary & Analysis

The Solitary Reaper by William Wordsworth, Full Summary & Analysis 
by Mohamed Zayed, a Linguist

Behold her, single in the field,
Yon solitary Highland Lass!
Reaping and singing by herself;
Stop here, or gently pass!
Alone she cuts and binds the grain,
And sings a melancholy strain;
O listen! for the Vale profound
Is overflowing with the sound.

No Nightingale did ever chaunt
More welcome notes to weary bands
Of travellers in some shady haunt,
Among Arabian sands:
A voice so thrilling ne'er was heard
In spring-time from the Cuckoo-bird,
Breaking the silence of the seas
Among the farthest Hebrides.

'They' by Siegfried Sassoon, Summary & Analysis

'They' by Siegfried Sassoon, Summary & Analysis 
by Mohamed Zayed, a Linguist 

The Bishop tells us: 'When the boys come back
'They will not be the same; for they'll have fought
'In a just cause: they lead the last attack
'On Anti-Christ; their comrades' blood has bought
'New right to breed an honourable race,
'They have challenged Death and dared him face to face.'

'We're none of us the same!' the boys reply.
'For George lost both his legs; and Bill's stone blind;
'Poor Jim's shot through the lungs and like to die;
'And Bert's gone syphilitic: you'll not find
'A chap who's served that hasn't found some change.

' And the Bishop said: 'The ways of God are strange!'

‘They’ is a 1917 poem by the English soldier and poet Siegfried Sassoon. It criticizes the attitude of the official English church to the First World War.

The Tyger by William Blake, Summary & Analysis

The Tyger by William Blake

Full Analysis of the Poem by Mohamed Zayed, a Linguist

Tyger! Tyger! burning bright
In the forests of the night,
What immortal hand or eye
Could frame thy fearful symmetry?
In what distant deeps or skies
Burnt the fire of thine eyes?
On what wings dare he aspire?
What the hand dare seize the fire?
And what shoulder, & what art,
Could twist the sinews of thy heart?
And when thy heart began to beat,
What dread hand? & what dread feet?
What the hammer? what the chain?
In what furnace was thy brain?
What the anvil? what dread grasp
Dare its deadly terrors clasp?
When the stars threw down their spears,
And water' d heaven with their tears,
Did he smile his work to see?
Did he who made the Lamb make thee?
Tyger! Tyger! burning bright
In the forests of the night,
What immortal hand or eye,
Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?

Summary of Doris Lessing's Martha Quest

Summary of Doris Lessing's Martha Quest 

by Mohamed Zayed, a Linguist 

Martha Quest is a novel written by Doris Lessing. It belongs to her series of novels known as The Children of Violence. Martha Quest traces the life of Martha from her adolescence to middle life. Hence, it is called a Bildungsroman or a “novel of development”. The novel tells the story of Martha Quest who enters the novel as a fifteen-year-old girl living in the Zambesia Province in Africa. Martha is represented as a rebellious character who is in constant struggle and disagreement with her parents, especially here mother. She always lends her mother a deaf ear. She never takes her mother’s advice on traditions and customs.

Intonation test, MCQ

Intonation: MCQ Sample Test 

Compiled by Mohamed Zayed
MA Researcher in English Linguistics

§  Choose the correct answer from a, b, c, or d in the following sentences:
1)     Intonation can be defined as . . .
a.     the rise and fall of speech
b.    the rhythm of speech
c.     the melody and tone of the speech
d.     all of the above

Analysis of Shakespeare's "To be or not to be", from Hamlet

Analysis of Shakespeare's "To be or not to be" 
from Hamlet 
by Mohamed Zayed, a Linguist 

To be, or not to be: that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep;
No more; and by a sleep to say we end
The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to, 'tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wish'd. To die, to sleep;
To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there's the rub;
For in that sleep of death what dreams may come
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause: there's the respect
That makes calamity of so long life;
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely

This is the most quoted piece of literature in all English literature. This soliloquy is said by Hamlet. It is said to be the most famous lines ever written in the history of English literature. This soliloquy is said in Act 3, scene 1 after Hamlet had met with the Ghost of his late murdered father,  Old Hamlet. The Ghost told Hamlet the most shocking news that his uncle Claudius is the murder of his father and that he, Hamlet, must take revenge for his father. Hamlet is beginning his soliloquy with the logical question of whether his uncle is truly the killer or not, “to be or not to be”. 

A Guide to English Transcription

A Guide to English Transcription : An Essential Guide

by Mohamed Zayed

§  What is transcription?
Transcription is the written representation of speech sounds using IPA symbols.
IPA = International Phonetic Alphabet

§  How to transcribe?
In order to transcribe, first you need to study  very well and know by heart the phonemic symbols used to represent each sound.

§  How to master transcription?
Transcription is a process of familiarity. In other words, the more you practice, the better you will be at transcription.

§  Why is transcription important?
Transcription is important because it tells you exactly how to pronounce a word correctly and properly just like the native people of the language. For example, how would you pronounce such words as "knight”, “emphasis”, “education”, etc.?

English Intonation: A Concise Course

English Intonation: A Concise Course 
by Mohamed Zayed

1. What is Intonation? 

Intonation is related to rhythm. It means the rise and fall of voice or the melody of speech. When we speak, our voice goes up and down in a high and low pitch. Pitch is associated with the vibration frequency of the vocal folds. 

Intonation is the punctuation of our speech as it helps listeners to navigate where we—speakers—stop, where we ask for information, etc. Intonation helps words to communicate messages and emotions such as anger, disgust, fear, sadness, happiness, etc. 

Pitch is the main carrier of intonation. An angry voice usually has a high pitch while a polite voice is usually low in pitch. Pitch also indicates several things such as social class, geographical origin, personality type and overall experience in life.

Basics of English Morphology: Basic Definitions

Basics of English Morphology: Basic Definitions 

by Mohamed Zayed, a Linguist 

Morphology is the study of morphemes and associated morphological processes, namely inflection  and derivation. 

1.  Morpheme
A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning in a word. The word ‘inexpensive’ includes two morphemes in and expensive. Each morpheme has its own meaning. The addition of in to expensive gives the sense of not. Morphemes can be a single orthographic letter and yet still change meaning. For example, the s in cats is a morpheme and changes the first morpheme cat from singular into plural. Other examples would be laughed which is made up of two morphemes laugh and ed; with the addition of ed altering the tense of the first morpheme and thus the time of occurrence. Or indistinguishable, which has three morphemes; and antidisestablishmentarianism, which consists of six separate morphemes.

Shakespeare's Anthony & Cleopatra: Theme of Love

Shakespeare's Anthony & Cleopatra: Theme of Love 

by Mohamed Zayed, a Linguist 

Theme of love is the major and dominant theme in the play. The story of love between Anthony and Cleopatra is an epic one. Antony and Cleopatra opens with a scene in which Antony confesses his unfathomable love for Cleopatra. Antony tells Cleopatra that his love has no bounds, and certainly seems excessive. It keeps him from important business in Rome, clouds his judgment, and is a contributing factor to his downfall. This is not to say that Antony’s love is wholly negative or that all love in the play is bad. One can view Antony’s love for Cleopatra as powerful, genuine devotion to another person. Moreover, the close bond between Octavius and his sister Octavia suggests the positive nature of familial love. Antony’s love is so destructive to himself perhaps because it is mostly a matter of lust and reckless passion.

A Guide to Ibsen's A Doll's House

A Guide to Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House 

by Mohamed Zayed, a linguist 

1) Major theme of the play:Theme of love & failed marriage 

In A Doll’s House, Ibsen discusses the theme of marriage by presenting a marriage which is not successful. According to Ibsen, a successful marriage must be based on mutual respect, sacrifice and frankness. It can be seen that the marriage of the Helmers lack these elements of successful marriage. Hence, it is a failed marriage.

The major theme of the play is love and failed marriage. The play revolves around the marriage of the Helmers, Nora and Torvald Helmer. Nora is a submissive, devoted wife to her husband. When the Helmers were newlyweds, one day the husband Torvald is sick and has to visit another country in order to save his life. There is not enough money to do that. So, the wife, Nora, borrows money from a corrupted person known as Krogstad. Nora does not tell her husband about the borrowed money and she lies to him. In order to get the money to save her husband, Nora had to forge her father’s signature. In doing so, she committed an illegal act and so Krogstad begins to blackmail her. Nora’s husband, Torvald, is a hypocrite and superficial person and will never forgive her if he knew that she lied to him and that she borrowed money.

Ulysses by Alfred Tennyson: Full Analysis of the Poem

Ulysses by Alfred Tennyson 

Full Analysis by a linguist 

Original Text 

It little profits that an idle king,
By this still hearth, among these barren crags,
Match'd with an aged wife, I mete and dole
Unequal laws unto a savage race,
That hoard, and sleep, and feed, and know not me.
I cannot rest from travel: I will drink
Life to the lees: All times I have enjoy'd
Greatly, have suffer'd greatly, both with those
That loved me, and alone, on shore, and when
Thro' scudding drifts the rainy Hyades
Vext the dim sea: I am become a name;
For always roaming with a hungry heart
Much have I seen and known; cities of men
And manners, climates, councils, governments,
Myself not least, but honour'd of them all;
And drunk delight of battle with my peers,
Far on the ringing plains of windy Troy.
I am a part of all that I have met;
Yet all experience is an arch wherethro'
Gleams that untravell'd world whose margin fades
For ever and forever when I move.
How dull it is to pause, to make an end,
To rust unburnish'd, not to shine in use!
As tho' to breathe were life! Life piled on life
Were all too little, and of one to me
Little remains: but every hour is saved
From that eternal silence, something more,
A bringer of new things; and vile it were
For some three suns to store and hoard myself,
And this gray spirit yearning in desire
To follow knowledge like a sinking star,
Beyond the utmost bound of human thought.

Analysis of the poem 

This poem was written by the great Victorian poet Alfred Tennyson. This poem takes the form of dramatic monologue since it is entirely spoken by a single character, Ulysses or Odysseus, who is reflecting his own reality in his own words. Some critics say that this poem might be considered as halfway between epic and elegy since it discusses the heroic legendary character of Ulysses on the one hand and on the other hand it is a sad narration or an elegy over the past victories and glories of Ulysses which he mourns in this poem.

As for the line-by-line semantic analysis of the poem, it is found that Ulysses is mourning his current state at home. Ulysses who spent almost 20 years away in the far seas is finally home, yet it is not the kind of home nor the kind of welcome he expected from his own people. In the beginning of the poem, Ulysses is stating that there is no use in his staying in his kingdom as an “idle king” in a castle which is nothing but pieces of rocks or “crags”. He is mourning his current state as an old king who is ruling the kingdom beside his old wife. He is no longer Ulysses the conqueror who fought the Trojan War and who brought unprecedented victories and glories. Ulysses is