RESEARCH PROPOSAL: Toward an Optimal Translation of Gender Markers in Arabic & English Legal Tests: A Syntactico-Pragmatic Study

Toward an Optimal Translation of Gender Markers in Arabic & English Legal Texts: A Syntactico-Pragmatic Study 

A Linguistics MA Thesis Proposal

Submitted by

Mohamed Zayed M. Zayed,

A Masters of Arts Researcher in Linguistics & Translation Studies

Registration Date: Nov. 6th, 2022

RESEARCH PAPER: English Intonation vis-à-vis Arabic Intonation: A Cross-Binary Comparative, Corpus-Based Study

English Intonation vis-à-vis Arabic Intonation: A Cross-Binary Comparative, Corpus-Based Study 

By Mohamed Zayed, Linguist & Legal Translator 

Victorian & Modern Criticism (Matthew Arnold & T. S. Eliot) - MCQ Test by Zayed


Victorian & Modern (Matthew Arnold & T. S. Eliot) Criticism - MCQ 

MCQ Sample Exam

By Mohamed Zayed

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d in the following sentences:

1) Mathew Arnold is considered the father of English criticism in . . .

a) Renaissance b) Victorian Age c) Restoration d) Modern-Day Literature

An Outline of Modern Criticism & T. S. Eliot's Tradition

An Outline of Modern Criticism & T. S. Eliot's Tradition 

Complied by Mohamed Zayed

a. Eliot’s Tradition:

 According to Eliot, “tradition” is a word that disagreeable to the English ear. The English praise the poet for his “individual” and original aspects. Eliot believes that the English praise the poet for the wrong things. Eliot believes that a great writer is someone who shows the maximum influence of the writers of the past (=tradition). Eliot revolted against Romantic subjectivity and individuality (=not following the poets of the past).

 The Value and Significance of Tradition: 

Overview & Summary Victorian Criticism & Matthew Arnold

 Overview & Summary Victorian Criticism & Matthew Arnold 

Victorian Criticism: Matthew Arnold

Complied by Mohamed Zayed 

The Victorian Age was an age of skepticism and the loss of religion as a result of scientific and industrial revolution. Matthew Arnold is considered the father of modern English criticism. 

Arnold and “The Function of Criticism”:

He is famous for his essay “The Function of Criticism”. That essay seeks to redefine the main responsibilities of criticism. In it, Arnold believes that creative power—the power to criticize—is the highest function of man. Arnold believes that a literary work doesn’t revolve around analysis and discovery but around creativity and proper explanation of such creativity “synthesis and exposition”. A literary work must be inspired by certain conditions and spiritual atmosphere. The aim or the function of a literary work is to express these ideas in an effective and attractive combination in a beautiful form. Hence, the function of criticism is to establish an order of ideas and to make the best ideas get control. It is through literary criticism that we can see the object or the work as it really is. Arnold wishes to apply scientific methods and reason to literary criticism.

Summary of Old English Literature


Old English literature           

The Old English language, also called Anglo-Saxon, was the earliest form of English. It is difficult to give exact dates for the rise and development of a language, because it does not change suddenly; but perhaps it is true to say that Old English was spoken from about A.D. 600 to about 1100. The greatest Old English poem is Beowulf, which belongs to the seventh century. 

Introduction to Neo-Classicism

 Introduction to Neo-Classicism

Neo-Classicism refers to a broad tendency in literature and art enduring from the early seventeenth century until around 1750. While the nature of this tendency inevitably varied accross different cultures, it was usually marked by a number of common concerns and characteristics. Most fundamentally, neo-Classicism comprised a return to the classical models, literary styles and values of ancient Greek and Roman authors. In this, the neo-Classicists were to some extent heirs of the Renaissance humanists.

Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra Plot Summary

 Synopsis of  the  Play: It  is  41  B.C.  when  the  play  starts.  The  setting  of  the  play  is  located  in  Egypt  and  Rome.  The  two main  protagonists  of  the  play  are  Mark  Anthony—the  great  Roman  hero  and  conqueror—and Cleopatra—the  Queen  with  captivating  beauty  of  Ancient  Egypt.  Mark  Anthony  is  one  of  the three  rulers—the  others  being  Octavius  Caesar  and  Lepidus—  of  the  Roman  Empire.  

Shakespeare's Antony & Cleopatra: Critical Thinking Questions by Mohamed Zayed

Shakespeare's Antony & Cleopatra: Critical thinking Questions 
Compiled and Prepared by Mohamed Zayed

1) When asked to analyse a quotation, here is the way:

The Great Gatsby: A Definitive Guide by Mohamed Zayed

The Great Gatsby: A Concise Guide by Mohamed Zayed


(1)               Themes of The Great Gatsby

Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.


(1)      Theme of The American Dream as represented in the novel

In the organisation of your answer, you should bear in mind the following outline suggested by our dear doctor:

-         The Definition of the American Dream.

-         Criticism of the American Dream

-         Is the American Dream Corrupted: (1) Importance of Work, (2) High Moral Sense, (3) Egalitarianism [equality], (4)Class [East and West egg and the Valley of Ashes and what they represent], (5) Racism [Tom’s Racism].


Richard Bean's England People Very Nice: Critical Thinking Questions & Answers by Mohamed Zayed

Richard Bean's England People Very Nice: Critical Thinking Questions & Answers
Compiled and Prepared by Mohamed Zayed, MA, Linguist and Legal Translator 

1st Question: 

1)  Discuss the theme of multiculturalism in Richard Bean’s England People Very Nice.


Discuss how Richard Bean tackled the theme of immigration and multiculturalism in the four acts of England People Very Nice, especially how he deals with Muslims.

The Answer

First of all, multiculturalism refers to the multiplicity of nationalities in one single place and the fragmented depiction of the different ethnical groups. It can be explained as a representation of the separate yet parallel existence of the immigrants on the one hand and the native people on the other hand. The theme of multiculturalism is closely related to the theme of immigration since there would be no multiculturalism without immigration.

Search for Identity in Doris Lessing's Martha Quest by Mohamed Zayed

Search for Identity in Doris Lessing's Martha Quest
Compiled by Mohamed Zayed 

NB: this article took much effort and in-depth reading; kindly cite me as your reference. 

The novel tells the story of Martha Quest who enters the novel as a fifteen-year-old girl living in the Zambesia Province in Africa. Martha is represented as a rebellious character who is in constant struggle and disagreement with her parents, especially here mother. She always lends her mother a deaf ear. She never takes her mother’s advice on traditions and customs. Martha motives and actions may be interpreted and seen as a search for identity. In order to explore properly this search for identity, we need to investigate the following: (1) Martha in relation to her peers, (2) Martha and her mother,(3) Her relationship with men, (4) Religion and atheism, (5) Work and (6) Her interest in world politics.

First of all, Martha is shown as a distinct character, one who stands out from her peers. Her search for identity is proved when she tries to have a different mentality from that of her peers. For example, all her peers think about is school or getting married, e.g. Marnie. She, on the other hand, is constantly looking forward to escaping her own home and family. She sees her escape from home as an outlet to the outer world which she has yet to see. She perceives her escape as a quest for reaching and forming her own unique identity. She feels that so long as she lives in the farm that she will always be overshadowed and affected by her parent’s principles. Hence, she can never have a true identity of her own.